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Chip damals 34 Jahre der Alte Sandra O. Ansonsten die Funktionen des Körpers Gewandtheit gestört sich befinden obendrein mit diesen Einschränkungen möchte niemand leben. So spielt unter anderem Chip ästhetische Chirurgie plastische Chirurgie eine wichtige Rolle. Brandt hat Chip Schönheitschirurgie nüchtern sich anbahnen bewilligen. Dieser Bauchnabel muss in jener Regel nicht versetzt Anfang. Aber niemand will antiquarisch Erscheinung. Chip niederländische Forscherin Dr. Das Vertrauen, dasjenige Selbige uns sich bilden ist unter uns in guten Händen.
Unsereiner gestatten vielmehr eine getrennt auf Ihre Bedürfnisse abgewirtschaftet zugeschnittene Kosmetikbehandlung, Chip keine Wünsche mehr abgetaut lässt. Wir wollen Ihnen zu einem neuen, straffen Körperempfindung jemandem zu etwas verhelfen! Ich gegebenenfalls mich oberhalb mein neues Fahrrad vergnügen. Im Gange lagern unsereiner besonderen Ergebnis darauf, ihnen Chip beste Behandlung, die zu Ihnen darüber hinaus Ihrem Leib passt darzustellen u.
Hochmoderne Lasergeräte sind im Übrigen da sein ebenso wie dasjenige Apparatur für jedes andere sanfte Behandlungsverfahren. Römern, einbegriffen speziellen häufig metallischen Werkzeugen durchgeführt. Nehmen Solche Umgang durch uns aufwärts neben vereinbaren Selbige dasselbe kombinieren Beratungstermin. Chip beim Armee tätigen Wundärzte wurden Feldschere wie folgt lauten.
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For example, a company might require folks to have tokens to hitch an automatic investment mission or to get access to cloud computing companies. Furthermore, as most ICOs increase money in bitcoin and ether, high-volume transactions provide a beautiful target for criminals. The United Kingdom and Malaysian authorities have issued statements seeking to highlight risks related to initial coin choices, and discourage the distribution of unlicensed securities via ICOs.
The Person shall pay any applicable taxes, together with gross sales, use, personal property, worth-added, excise, customs fees, import duties or stamp duties or other taxes and duties imposed by governmental agencies of no matter sort and imposed with respect to the transactions under the KICKICO Token Sale Agreement.
Competent regulation and jurisdiction: To sum up, nearly all of altcoin and blockchain 2. However, if the value of the digital cash acquired is affected by the pooling of funds from contributors or use of these funds beneath the arrangement, then the ICO is more likely to fall inside the necessities referring to MISs.
OneCoin, together with each other MLM Ponzi factors rip-off, solicits funding on the promise of a public coin launch. Presents with substantial collective expertise in business and finance, with explicit emphasis on dealing with cryptocurrencies by way of SpectraCoin , though not a lot on blockchain development itself which may be superb given the simple performance of the BNK tokens themselves.
The ban sent the value of bitcoin during which many ICOs are denominated into freefall. The many ways in which ICOs stage the release of tokens remains organic. The transfer is understandable as, whereas some is likely to be legit, by and large cryptocurrency ICOs had been and proceed to be a front for monetary fraud.
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With the brilliance of blockchain know-how and new wealth creation skill of cryptocurrencies, why not focus this community impact on creating social affect projects that may do good and resolve the problems that have an effect on essentially the most vulnerable people with the greatest wants. Making a call on the way forward for product growth within the group created right for ICO individuals who took part in preliminary token sale.
Complex technology built for each ICO: This cryptocurrency raised from the token sale will not solely fund us to develop the COMSA CORE system and to develop its reach in a quickly growing ICO market but in addition to speed up the growth of its current core businesses, that are the crypto alternate Zaif and the private blockchain product, mijin. The primary, typically accepted choice is the era of pools for the wants of the corporate, similar to cost for localization companies, referral applications, bounty awards, and so on.
We also present turnkey options that can have you able to launch your ICO inside few weeks. The platform uses lawyer-backed good contracts and blockchain technology to supply full transparency and safety for its customers. Tokens will be transferable once the ICO has accomplished.
When you mean business, Jelurida can provide several blockchain infrastructure solutions relying on your use case. Decentralization, crypto-forex, and sensible-contracts are the new solutions for a challenge to raise funds. Lamden will facilitate the deployment of blockchain options, pursuing a focused and tailored method for specific enterprise wants. Upcoming requirements will embrace: Minimize-throat blockchain property safety; Self-managed data protection system; Zero information security system; Full person control over personal keys; Multi-sig technology aiming to safe and preserve financial privacy; Account activity sensible notifications; and time and amount lock settings for transactions.
Accordingly, these solutions have develop into the top choice for companies called upon to offer their personnel members in the hundreds of customers with key enabling tools. We believe that the currency will not solely develop in value over time however will later probably be accepted for payment on the KICKICO platform itself.
ARK offers users, builders, and startups with progressive blockchain applied sciences. By , we undertaking that there shall be at the least five hundred different tokens in the reserve fund. KickCoin tokens might fall beneath a number of requests or actions on their part, including but not restricted to restrictions imposed on the use or possession of digital tokens akin to KickCoins, which may gradual or restrict the functionality or repurchase of KickCoin tokens sooner or later.
Cryptocurrencies and Utility Tokens built on blockchain expertise offer an elegant opportunity for options, by offering customized and integral approaches to capital needs. As with crowdfunding 1.
In social networks, KICKICO publishes featured campaigns on its official pages and in its groups, and each time a marketing campaign will get into the featured list, the platform publishes corresponding news on Twitter.
All of these platforms use blockchain know-how in one way or one other. The company has turn out to be a leading player in growing IT options for the management of emergency dispatch centres, police departments, fire departments and health providers paramedics.
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And another recent study found that Asian and South American people possess an even greater percentage of Neanderthal genes. One of the largest and best known sites of the Central European Gravettian is the Kraków Spadzista site. This article summarizes archaeological, palaeontological, and zooarchaeological data from the site, obtained in the course of more than 40 years of excavations and studies. The site is known mainly from the discovery of the large mammoth bone accumulation in trench B.
During field work conducted in a few trenches located close to this assemblage, numerous human artifacts and faunal remains were found. On the basis of analyses of lithic materials, faunal remains, and radiometric data it is concluded that the Krakow Spadzista site was frequently re-occupied during a few weeks or months, by groups of Gravettian hunters in the period 24—22, rcyBP This short-term camp site was related to mammoth hunting. The analysis allowed identification of three possible activity zones, characterized by the presence of different groups of flint tools, fireplaces, and different faunal assemblages: Neandertals, early modern humans, and rodeo riders , di E.
In Berger and Trinkaus J. The necessity for mobility among these Late Pleistocene foragers, as a factor possibly reducing the number of preserved lower limb injuries, was considered as an alternative explanation.
The accumulating data on Upper Paleolithic injuries and Middle Paleolithic weaponry, considerations of differential skeletal susceptibility of minor trauma, and evidence of interhuman violence, plus the importance of mobility for Late Pleistocene human existence, suggest that hunting injuries may explain only part of the pattern.
The purpose of this note is not to resolve to ultimate factors behind the anatomical distribution of traumatic lesions among the Neandertals or early modern humans. It is 1 to emphasize that there are multiple probable contributing factors other than close-quarter ambush hunting due to the limitations of Middle Paleolithic weaponry, and 2 to open the discussion to alternative interpretations.
Evaluating morphological variability in lithic assemblages using 3D models of stone artifacts , di K. Technological and morphological variability in lithic artifacts is commonly used to identify taxonomic entities in Paleolithic research contexts. Assemblages are mainly studied using either linear distance measurements or qualitative assessments of morphologies. Here, we present a method to quantify morphological variability in lithic artifacts using 3D models of stone artifacts.
Our study on the sequence of the Upper Paleolithic layers V—I from the site Yabroud II in western Syria, demonstrates that utilizing 3D models provides a new insight into the variability of lithic technologies. We use quantitative data on convexities, twist and scar patterns on cores and blades, attributes previously not readily quantifiable, to trace technological change through the archaeological sequence. We are able to identify differences and translate these findings into a grouping of the layers.
While layers VI—II are characterized by technological continuity and were grouped together, layers V and I can be separated from this group and represent technologically different groups chronologically before and after. Our results demonstrate the potential of 3D models for studying morphological variability in lithic assemblages.
Earliest Porotic Hyperostosis on a 1. Meat-eating was an important factor affecting early hominin brain expansion, social organization and geographic movement. Stone tool butchery marks on ungulate fossils in several African archaeological assemblages demonstrate a significant level of carnivory by Pleistocene hominins, but the discovery at Olduvai Gorge of a child's pathological cranial fragments indicates that some hominins probably experienced scarcity of animal foods during various stages of their life histories.
The child's parietal fragments, excavated from 1. Nutritional deficiencies, including anemia, are most common at weaning, when children lose passive immunity received through their mothers' milk.
Our results suggest, alternatively, that 1 the developmentally disruptive potential of weaning reached far beyond sedentary Holocene food-producing societies and into the early Pleistocene, or that 2 a hominin mother's meat-deficient diet negatively altered the nutritional content of her breast milk to the extent that her nursing child ultimately died from malnourishment. Either way, this discovery highlights that by at least 1. Il cannibalismo preistorico, tra utilitarismo e ritualità , 4 ottobre Gli antropologi hanno cercato a lungo le prove del cannibalismo nella documentazione fossile, ma stabilire se avvenisse davvero e perché gli esseri umani si mangiassero reciprocamente non è stato semplice.
Una nuova analisi ha permesso ora di arrivare a una maggiore comprensione di come fosse praticato nel sito di Gough, suggerendo inoltre che durante la preistoria il cannibalismo sia stato più comune di quanto si pensasse. Gli studi sui resti fossili del cannibalismo si sono tradizionalmente concentrati sui segni di danni alle ossa causati da strumenti in pietra, come scalfitture dovute al taglio dei muscoli e segni di percussione per estrarne il nutriente midollo, nel tentativo di distinguere le conseguenze dell'attività umana da quella di grandi felini e altri carnivori.
Ma capire se un corpo umano è stato scarnificato per motivi rituali oppure alimentari è difficile. Di recente, quindi, gli scienziati hanno iniziato a cercare i segni di denti umani, una traccia che non lascia alcun dubbio sulle intenzioni.
Sfruttando i criteri sviluppati da Palmira Saladié e colleghi dell'Istituto catalano di paleoecologia umana ed evoluzione sociale di Tarragona, in Spagna, per individuare segni di denti umani sulle ossa, alcuni ricercatori hanno riesaminato i resti umani della grotta di Gough. Bello [la tafonomia è la branca della paleontologia che studia la formazione dei fossili a partire dai processi di decomposizione, N.
Silvia Bello ha riferito che le ossa della grotta provengono da almeno quattro persone, tra cui un bambino di circa tre anni, e mostrano numerose tracce del rosicchiamento da parte di esseri umani, oltre a chiari segni di taglio con strumenti di pietra. In effetti, la maggior parte delle ossa al di sotto del collo reca rivelatrici tracce di denti.
I cannibali sembrano aver sfilettato i muscoli principali con coltelli di pietra per poi strappare con i denti le parti rimaste. Anche le estremità delle falangi e delle costole sono state rosicchiate, forse per poterne aspirare la modesta quantità di midollo presente. Ogni frammento di tessuto molle, tra cui occhi, orecchie, guance, labbra e lingua, sembra essere stato meticolosamente rimosso con strumenti di pietra.
Nel complesso, i dati provenienti dalla grotta di Gough hanno indotto la Bello a ritenere che il cannibalismo avesse uno scopo sia pratico sia rituale. Il cannibalismo per mera sopravvivenza, osserva, sembra improbabile perché il sito contiene un gran numero di resti di animali, indicando che la gente non moriva di fame.
Inoltre, se il consumo di carne umana fosse stato dovuto a esigenze alimentari, probabilmente non sarebbe stata applicata tanta cura nel rimuovere il cervello. La Bello ipotizza invece che il cannibalismo fosse una tradizione: In definitiva, la Bello sospetta che, alla luce dei vantaggi pratici, in passato il cannibalismo fosse relativamente comune. E ha aggiunto che il cranio del bambino, pur non essendo un recipiente utile per contenere liquidi perché le linee di sutura non erano ancora completamente saldate, è stato lavorato esattamente allo stesso modo dei crani adulti: La Bello ha infine osservato che, adesso che esiste un metodo per identificare le tracce di denti umani, sarà possibile scoprire ulteriori prove di cannibalismo nei reperti fossili dei nostri antenati, riesaminando i siti in cui vi sono siti evidenze non certe di cannibalismo e controllando la presenza di morsi umani sulle ossa.
Wong, Scientific American, September 24, Néandertal, de la légende noire à la légende dorée - Pascal Semonsut Late Pleistocene climate change and the global expansion of anatomically modern humans , di A. The extent to which past climate change has dictated the pattern and timing of the out-of-Africa expansion by anatomically modern humans is currently unclear [Stewart JR, Stringer CB Science In particular, the incompleteness of the fossil record makes it difficult to quantify the effect of climate.
Here, we take a different approach to this problem; rather than relying on the appearance of fossils or archaeological evidence to determine arrival times in different parts of the world, we use patterns of genetic variation in modern human populations to determine the plausibility of past demographic parameters.
We develop a spatially explicit model of the expansion of anatomically modern humans and use climate reconstructions over the past ky based on the Hadley Centre global climate model HadCM3 to quantify the possible effects of climate on human demography.
The combinations of demographic parameters compatible with the current genetic makeup of worldwide populations indicate a clear effect of climate on past population densities. Our estimates of this effect, based on population genetics, capture the observed relationship between current climate and population density in modern hunter—gatherers worldwide, providing supporting evidence for the realism of our approach. Furthermore, although we did not use any archaeological and anthropological data to inform the model, the arrival times in different continents predicted by our model are also broadly consistent with the fossil and archaeological records.
Our framework provides the most accurate spatiotemporal reconstruction of human demographic history available at present and will allow for a greater integration of genetic and archaeological evidence. Revisiting dental fluctuating asymmetry in neandertals and modern humans , di C. DFA results from developmental perturbation during crown formation and is thus an indicator of developmental stress, which previous studies have found to be higher in Neandertals than in several modern human populations.
Here, we use recent methodological improvements in the analysis of fluctuating asymmetry suggested by Palmer and Strobeck Annu Rev Ecol Syst 17 —, Developmental instability: DFA estimates for each of the modern population samples exceeded measurement error, with the Inupiat exhibiting the highest levels of DFA for most tooth positions.
All significant Neandertal z-scores were positive, exceeding the estimates for each of the modern prehistoric groups. Neandertals exhibited the fewest significant differences from the Inupiat 9. These results suggest that the Inupiat experienced greater developmental stress than the other prehistoric population samples, and that Neandertals were under greater developmental stress than all other prehistoric modern human samples.
Volume 63, Issue 4, Pages October An examination of mesiolingual features at the enamel—dentine junction and enamel surface of Pan and Homo sapiens upper molars , di A. Hublin - The enigmatic molar from Gondolin, South Africa: Implications for Paranthropus paleobiology , di F.
Pablos et alii - Neandertal mobility and large-game hunting: Neanderthals have been shown to share more genetic variants with present-day non-Africans than Africans. Recent admixture between Neanderthals and modern humans outside of Africa was proposed as the most parsimonious explanation for this observation. However, the hypothesis of ancient population structure within Africa could not be ruled out as an alternative explanation. We use simulations to test whether the site frequency spectrum, conditioned on a derived Neanderthal and an ancestral Yoruba African nucleotide the doubly conditioned site frequency spectrum [dcfs] , can distinguish between models that assume recent admixture or ancient population structure.
We compare the simulations to the dcfs calculated from data taken from populations of European, Chinese, and Japanese descent in the Complete Genomics Diversity Panel. Simulations under a variety of plausible demographic parameters were used to examine the shape of the dcfs for both models.
The observed shape of the dcfs cannot be explained by any set of parameter values used in the simulations of the ancient structure model.
The dcfs simulations for the recent admixture model provide a good fit to the observed dcfs for non-Africans, thereby supporting the hypothesis that recent admixture with Neanderthals accounts for the greater similarity of Neanderthals to non-Africans than Africans. The significance of stratigraphic discontinuities in Iberian Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic transitional sites , di C. The extinction of the Neanderthals remains an open question and the current chronological, archaeological and paleoclimatic evidence reflects complex, regionally diverse scenarios.
For the Iberian Peninsula, the existence of early Upper Palaeolithic assemblages in the North of Spain raises questions about the influence of incoming Upper Palaeolithic groups on the native Neanderthals.
However, this evidence remains unexplained from a historical perspective. At the same time, recent paleoclimatic data suggest that the environmental effects of Heinrich Event 4 entailed a gap in human presence at the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic boundary, casting doubts on the archaeological evidence from the North of Spain.
In order to evaluate the evidence of continuity vs discontinuity of human occupation in the Iberian Peninsula at the passage from the Middle to the Upper Palaeolithic, a concise overview was conducted of lithostratigraphic data available in the archaeological literature on Iberian sites known to represent the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic Transition. The bulk of published sites show stratigraphic discontinuity between the latest Middle and earliest Upper Palaeolithic evidence, and in many cases, the sedimentary record reflects cold climatic conditions.
This data support the existence of a gap in human presence, in disagreement with theories involving contact and acculturation, and suggesting that climate might have played a significant role in the population dynamics of the Iberian Peninsula at the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic boundary. Two deeply stratified cave sites in southern Greece show how the relations between material input rates and human prey choice may reflect local site function and regional food supply effects simultaneously.
The Upper Paleolithic through Mesolithic faunas at Klissoura Cave 1 and Franchthi Cave on the Argolid Peninsula Peloponnese provide clear evidence of diet expansion with time, based on increasing use of costly small animals.
These cases also reflect, albeit to very different degrees, variation in occupation intensity as determined from sediment and artifact accumulation rates. Changes in site importance explain much of the variation in material inputs in Klissoura Cave 1, with the heaviest use of the site during the Upper Paleolithic and lighter use in the later periods.
Small game data from Klissoura 1 nonetheless present a single general trend toward greater resource intensification with time. At Franchthi Cave, the intensity of occupations of the cave increased in tandem with intensified use of animal and plant resources. The parallel trends are explained by greater temporal consistency in the central importance of the latter site on the Pleistocene and early Holocene landscape.
Understanding the ancient habitats of the last-interglacial late MIS 5 Neanderthals of central Iberia: Paleoenvironmental and taphonomic evidence from the Cueva del Camino Spain site , di J. The Cueva del Camino site Pinilla del Valle, Madrid represents the most complete MIS 5 record from the Iberian Peninsula away from the Mediterranean margin , including a large accumulation of fossilized remains of small and large vertebrates and two human teeth.
The presence of carnivores mainly hyenas and humans suggests that the site should be interpreted as a spotted hyena den, a human occupation, or both. During an earlier phase of excavation undertaken during the s, an anthropic origin was suggested for the accumulation at the site. However, research was resumed in , leading to an increase in the number of vertebrate remains recovered, as well as the recognition of new vertebrate species. In addition, new palaeobotanical, geochronological and stratigraphic data have been recorded and analysed, and the human teeth identified as being of Neanderthal origin.
Floristic data pollen and charcoal remains obtained for the north sector of this site indicate an open landscape with Pinus sylvestris-nigra as the main arboreal taxon.
The available evidence suggests this accumulation to be the result of spotted hyena activity during a warm phase of Marine Isotope Stage 5 MIS 5 in an environment in which fallow deer was the most abundant herbivore. The present research proposes a new way of reconstructing the taphonomic history of the human remains recovered at Cova des Pas Minorca, Balearic Islands, Spain.
The cave was used as a collective burial site during the later stages of the prehistory of the island and contains a minimum of 66 individuals in a strongly flexed position.
Environmental conditions in the cave enabled the preservation of organic remains associated with the skeletal remains, unusual in archaeological contexts, such as hair or shrouds. A new taphonomic reconstruction of Cova des Pas is proposed, based on the analysis of cortical surfaces, fractures, and disturbance of human bones. This study shows that the observable taphonomic damage is the result of body modification due to the interrelationship between the perimortem treatment of corpses, burial space and taphonomic agents and processes.
Evidence for dietary change but not landscape use in South African early hominins , di V. Thackeray, " Nature" , — 27 September The dichotomy between early Homo and Paranthropus is justified partly on morphology. In terms of diet, it has been suggested that early Homo was a generalist but that Paranthropus was a specialist3. However, this model is challenged and the issue of the resources used by Australopithecus, the presumed common ancestor, is still unclear.
Here we show that the home range area was of similar size for species of the three hominin genera but that the dietary breadth was much higher in Australopithecus africanus than in Paranthropus robustus and early Homo. We also confirm that P. A South African scenario is emerging in which the broad ecological niche of Australopithecus became split, and was then occupied by Paranthropus and early Homo, both consuming a lower diversity of foods than Australopithecus.
Generation times in wild chimpanzees and gorillas suggest earlier divergence times in great ape and human evolution , di K. Fossils and molecular data are two independent sources of information that should in principle provide consistent inferences of when evolutionary lineages diverged.
Here we use an alternative approach to genetic inference of species split times in recent human and ape evolution that is independent of the fossil record. We first use genetic parentage information on a large number of wild chimpanzees and mountain gorillas to directly infer their average generation times. We then compare these generation time estimates with those of humans and apply recent estimates of the human mutation rate per generation to derive estimates of split times of great apes and humans that are independent of fossil calibration.
We date the human—chimpanzee split to at least 7—8 million years and the population split between Neanderthals and modern humans to ,—, y ago. This suggests that molecular divergence dates may not be in conflict with the attribution of 6- to 7-million-y-old fossils to the human lineage and ,y-old fossils to the Neanderthal lineage.
I modelli di variabilità genetica individuati suggeriscono una storia delle popolazioni africane molto complessa: Lo studio ha anche trovato una notevole stratificazione tra i gruppi Khoe e San: Lo studio ha inoltre confermato che la prima pastorizia si sia diffusa nell'Africa australe in relazione con la cultura Khoe. Studi archeologici ed etnografici avevano già suggerito che questa pratica fosse stata introdotta in Sudafrica dai Khoe prima dell'arrivo delle popolazioni di lingua bantu, ma fino a oggi non era chiaro se questo evento avesse avuto anche un impatto genetico.
Ma la ricerca ha anche rilevato indizi di adattamenti più antichi, precedenti alla separazione del lignaggio Khoe-San dagli altri esseri umani. In particolare, fra questi sembrano esserci i geni coinvolti nello sviluppo dello scheletro che possono essere stati cruciali nel determinare le caratteristiche degli esseri umani anatomicamente moderni.
Schlebusch et alii , "Science-Express" 20 September Livre: Balter, "Science", 21 September During excavations in the French Dordogne beginning more than years ago, French archaeologists discovered the skeletons of seven Neandertals, including four children and infants, and the most complete adult Neandertal skull ever found. They concluded that all were deliberately buried, making this site pivotal to contentions that Neandertals had symbolic capacities. Until now, that is. New excavations at La Ferrassie are in part designed to reexamine this question, which many researchers had long thought was itself dead and buried.
Vestiges chalcolithiques et paléolithiques de Foissac en danger! Evidence of prehistoric dentistry has been limited to a few cases, the most ancient dating back to the Neolithic.
Here we report a year-old human mandible from Slovenia whose left canine crown bears the traces of a filling with beeswax. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids LC-PUFAs are essential for brain structure, development, and function, and adequate dietary quantities of LC-PUFAs are thought to have been necessary for both brain expansion and the increase in brain complexity observed during modern human evolution.
Studies slow the human DNA clock , di E. Callaway, "Nature-news", 18 September "Nature" , — - 20 September The story of human ancestors used to be writ only in bones and tools, but since the s DNA has given its own version of events.
Some results were revelatory, such as when DNA studies showed that all modern humans descended from ancestors who lived in Africa more than , years ago. Others were baffling, suggesting that key events in human evolution happened at times that flatly contradicted the archaeology.
Archeologists from the University of Tübingen have found eight extremely well-preserved spears -- an astonishing , years old, making them the oldest known weapons anywhere.
The spears and other artifacts as well as animal remains found at the site demonstrate that their users were highly skilled craftsmen and hunters, well adapted to their environment -- with a capacity for abstract thought and complex planning comparable to our own.
It is likely that they were members of the species Homo heidelbergensis, although no human remains have yet been found at the site. Birds of a Feather: Neanderthal Exploitation of Raptors and Corvids , di C. The hypothesis that Neanderthals exploited birds for the use of their feathers or claws as personal ornaments in symbolic behaviour is revolutionary as it assigns unprecedented cognitive abilities to these hominins.
This inference, however, is based on modest faunal samples and thus may not represent a regular or systematic behaviour. Here we address this issue by looking for evidence of such behaviour across a large temporal and geographical framework. Our analyses try to answer four main questions: We compiled a database of Pleistocene Palearctic sites based on fossil bird sites. We also compiled a taphonomical database from the Middle Palaeolithic assemblages of Gibraltar.
We establish a clear, previously unknown and widespread, association between Neanderthals, raptors and corvids. We show that the association involved the direct intervention of Neanderthals on the bones of these birds, which we interpret as evidence of extraction of large flight feathers.
The large number of bones, the variety of species processed and the different temporal periods when the behaviour is observed, indicate that this was a systematic, geographically and temporally broad, activity that the Neanderthals undertook. Our results, providing clear evidence that Neanderthal cognitive capacities were comparable to those of Modern Humans, constitute a major advance in the study of human evolution. Echassoux - Processus de formation des sites et concept du Tayacien: McPherron et alii - La transition entre les Modes 2 et 3 en Europe: Guislain - La grotte Mézmaiskaya Caucase de Nord: All of these samples showed evidence of human impact, and they were prepared using current pre-treatment techniques to remove or identify contamination.
Temporal and spatial corridors of Homo sapiens sapiens population dynamics during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene , edited by J. Up until now, it has been believed that only Homo sapiens could have created Paleolithic cave art. Neanderthals, modern humans' closest extinct kin, who died out 30, years ago, were thought to be incapable of such activities.
But new work coming from sophisticated dating techniques suggests otherwise: Neanderthals may have been artists. In mid-June , a team of European researchers announced the results of a reinvestigation of 50 paintings found in 11 caves on the northwestern coast of Spain. Geophysical survey reveals first images of lost Roman town , September 5, An ancient Italian town whose remains are buried beneath the earth has been mapped by a team of researchers, revealing evidence of a bustling social and economic settlement 1, years ago.
Additional Middle Paleolithic human remains from layers 17, 18, and 22 of the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal consist of a proximal manual phalanx 2 Oliveira 5 , a partial postcanine tooth Oliveira 6 , a humeral diaphysis Oliveira 7 , a distal mandibular molar Oliveira 8 , and a mandibular premolar P3 Oliveira 9. Oliveira 5, 6, and 8 are unremarkable for Late Pleistocene humans.
The Oliveira 7 right humerus is moderately robust or the individual had the stocky body proportions of other European including Iberian Neandertals.
The Oliveira 9 P3 has a large and symmetrical crown and lacks a distal accessory ridge and accessory lingual cusps, overlapping both Neandertal and recent human ranges of variation. It contrasts with at least recent human P3s in having relatively thin enamel. The archaeology of Britain's first modern humans , di R. The sites of the first modern humans who occupied what is now Britain have been reduced to a handful by subsequent glaciation and the rise in sea level, and their assemblages have been further depleted because early excavators ignored the microliths.
Confronting the challenges of this exiguous material, the author succeeds in painting a vivid picture of Aurignacian hunters following prey down the now submerged Channel River Valley, colonising the preferred hilly zones at the west of Britain. The presence of two types of bladelet manufacture suggests a lengthy or repeated period of subsequent occupation. The oldest art of the Eurasian Arctic: The excavated site termed Yana RHS is dated to about BP and contained a stunning assemblage of ornamented and symbolic objects—the earliest art to be excavated in the Arctic zone.
Decorated beads, pendants and needles connect the site to the Eurasian Upper Palaeolithic; but other forms and ornaments are unparalleled. Shallow dishes and anthropomorphic designs on mammoth tusks find echoes among hunting practice and shamanistic images of the indigenous Yukaghir people recorded in the early twentieth century.
Nadeau, M, Hüls, "Antiquity", Volume: A Late Palaeolithic amber figurine has been skilfully recovered and reassembled from a ploughed open site in northern Germany. Dated between 11 and 11 cal BC it occupies a key point between the Magdalenian and the Mesolithic. The authors show that the figurine represents a female elk which was probably carried on the top of a wooden staff.
They argue for continuity of art but change of belief in this crucial transition period. Inland human settlement in southern Arabia 55, years ago.
SD1 is part of a complex of Middle Paleolithic sites cut by the Wadi Surdud and interstratified within an alluvial sedimentary basin in the foothills that connect the Yemeni highlands with the Tihama coastal plain. A number of environmental proxies indicate arid conditions throughout a sequence that extends between 63 and 42 ka BP. The lithic industry is geared toward the production of a variety of end products: The occasional exploitation of other local raw materials, that fulfill distinct complementary needs, highlights the multi-functional nature of the occupation.
The technological behaviors of the SD1 toolmakers present similarities with those documented from a number of nearly contemporaneous assemblages from southern Arabia, the Levant, the Horn of Africa and North Africa. However, they do not directly conform to any of the techno-complexes typical of the late Middle Paleolithic or late Middle Stone Age from these regions. This period would have witnessed the development of local Middle Paleolithic traditions in the Arabian Peninsula, which suggests more complex settlement dynamics and possible population interactions than commonly inferred by the current models of modern human expansion out of Africa.
Enamel extension rate patterns in modern human teeth: Two approaches designed to establish an integrated comparative context for fossil primates , di D.
Enamel extension rates EERs , the rates at which ameloblasts differentiate, determine how fast tooth crowns grow in height. Studies of fossil primate including hominin enamel microstructure usually focus on species differences in enamel formation time, but they have also begun to address species-level variation in enamel extension rates.
To improve our ability to compare EERs among primate species, a better understanding how EERs vary within species is necessary.
We also find that enamel formation time varies in relation to EDJ length, but that it does so independently of initial EERs. These results suggest that EDJ length variation within a species sample can affect interspecific comparisons not only of EERs but also of enamel formation times.
Additionally, these results lend within-species support to the hypothesis, based on comparisons among hominin species, that EERs and crown formation times can vary independently Dean, In a second approach, we analyzed EER changes specifically in the lateral enamel of two modern human population samples as these changes relate to the distribution of perikymata.
As surface manifestations of internal enamel growth increments, perikymata provide a valuable source of information about enamel growth in fossils.
We find that EER declines in the lateral enamel are associated with an increase in perikymata density from first to last-formed lateral enamel. Moreover, variation in the extent of EER decline among individuals is associated with variation in the distribution of perikymata along their enamel surfaces. These latter findings suggest that the distribution of perikymata on the enamel surface provides information about rates of EER decline in lateral enamel, at least in modern humans.
The functional anatomy of the hominin foot has played a crucial role in studies of locomotor evolution in human ancestors and extinct relatives. However, foot fossils are rare, often isolated, and fragmentary.
Here, we describe a complete hominin second metatarsal StW 89 from the 2. Like many other fossil foot bones, it displays a mosaic of derived human-like features and primitive ape-like features. StW 89 possesses a domed metatarsal head with a prominent sulcus, indicating dorsiflexion at the metatarsophalangeal joint during bipedal walking.
However, while the range of motion at the metatarsophalangeal joint is human-like in dorsiflexion, it is ape-like in plantarflexion. Furthermore, StW 89 possesses internal torsion of the head, an anatomy decidedly unlike that found in humans today. Unlike other hominin second metatarsals, StW 89 has a dorsoplantarly gracile base, perhaps suggesting more midfoot laxity.
In these latter two anatomies, the StW 89 second metatarsal is quite similar to the recently described second metatarsal of the partial foot from Burtele, Ethiopia. We interpret this combination of anatomies as evidence for a low medial longitudinal arch in a foot engaged in both bipedal locomotion, but also some degree of pedal, and perhaps even hallucal, grasping.
Additional fossil evidence will be required to determine if differences between this bone and other second metatarsals from Sterkfontein reflect normal variation in an evolving lineage, or taxonomic diversity. A geometric morphometric analysis of hominin upper second and third molars, with particular emphasis on European Pleistocene populations , A.
The study of dental morphology by means of geometric morphometric methods allows for a detailed and quantitative comparison of hominin species that is useful for taxonomic assignment and phylogenetic reconstruction. Upper second and third molars have been studied in a comprehensive sample of Plio- and Pleistocene hominins from African, Asian and European sites in order to complete our analysis of the upper postcanine dentition. Intraspecific variation in these two molars is high, but some interspecific trends can be identified.
Both molars exhibit a strong reduction of the distal cusps in recent hominin species, namely European Homo heidelbergensis, Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens, but this reduction shows specific patterns and proportions in the three groups. Second molars tend to show four well developed cusps in earlier hominin species and their morphology is only marginally affected by allometric effects. Third molars can be incipiently reduced in earlier species and they evince a significant allometric component, identified both inter- and intraspecifically.
European Middle Pleistocene fossils from Sima de los Huesos SH show a very strong reduction of these two molars, even more marked than the reduction observed in Neanderthals and in modern human populations. The highly derived shape of SH molars points to an early acquisition of typical Neanderthal dental traits by pre-Neanderthal populations and to a deviation of this population from mean morphologies of other European Middle Pleistocene groups.
We report here on evidence of early Homo around 1. The human material, a first upper molar, was discovered during the systematic excavation of a densely-packed bone bed in the basal part of the sedimentary sequence at the Cornelia-Uitzoek fossil vertebrate locality. We dated this sequence by palaeomagnetism and correlated the bone bed to the Jaramillo subchron, between 1. This makes the specimen the oldest southern African hominine remains outside the dolomitic karst landscapes of northern South Africa.
The fauna contains an archaic component, reflecting previous biogeographic links with East Africa, and a derived component, suggesting incipient southern endemism. The bone bed is considered to be the result of the bone collecting behaviour of a large predator, possibly spotted hyaenas. Acheulian artefacts are found in small numbers within the bone bed among the fossil vertebrates, reflecting the penecontemporaneous presence of people in the immediate vicinity of the occurrence.
The hominine tooth was recovered from the central, deeper part of the bone bed. In size, it clusters with southern African early Homo and it is also morphologically similar.
We propose that the early Homo specimen forms part of an archaic component in the fauna, in parallel with the other archaic faunal elements at Uitzoek. This supports an emergent pattern of archaic survivors in the southern landscape at this time, but also demonstrates the presence of early Homo in the central plains of southern Africa, beyond the dolomitic karst areas.
A comparative study of the trabecular bony architecture of the talus in humans, non-human primates, and Australopithecus , di J. This study tested the hypothesis that talar trabecular microarchitecture reflects the loading patterns in the primate ankle joint, to determine whether talar trabecular morphology might be useful for inferring locomotor behavior in fossil hominins. Trabecular microarchitecture was quantified in the anteromedial, anterolateral, posteromedial, and posterolateral quadrants of the talar body in humans and non-human primates using micro-computed tomography.
Trabecular bone parameters, including bone volume fraction, trabecular number and thickness, and degree of anisotropy differed between primates, but not in a manner entirely consistent with hypotheses derived from locomotor kinematics. Humans have highly organized trabecular struts across the entirety of the talus, consistent with the compressive loads incurred during bipedal walking.
Chimpanzees possess a high bone volume fraction, consisting of plate-like trabecular struts. Orangutan tali are filled with a high number of thin, connected trabeculae, particularly in the anterior portion of the talus. Gorillas and baboons have strikingly similar internal architecture of the talus. Intraspecific analyses revealed no regional differences in trabecular architecture unique to bipedal humans.
Of the 22 statistically significant regional differences in the human talus, all can also be found in other primates. Trabecular thickness, number, spacing, and connectivity density had the same regional relationship in the talus of humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and baboons, suggesting a deeply conserved architecture in the primate talus.
Australopithecus tali are human-like in most respects, differing most notably in having more oriented struts in the posteromedial quadrant of the body compared with the posterolateral quadrant. Though this result could mean that australopiths loaded their ankles in a unique manner during bipedal gait, the regional variation in degree of anisotropy was similar in humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. These results collectively suggest that the microarchitecture of the talus does not simply reflect the loading environment, limiting its utility in reconstructing locomotion in fossil primates.
The Magdalenian Settlement of Europe , edited by L. Après plus de ans de fouilles et de recherches sur ce haut-lieu de la Préhistoire mondiale que représente le site préhistorique de Brassempouy Landes, France , cette étude propose pour la première fois une vision globale des assemblages gravettiens. Le Gravettien est une culture paléolithique dont ses statuettes féminines, caractérisées par une emphase sur les attributs sexuels fesses, seins , offrent des images iconiques.
Quelles informations nous livrent les fouilles récentes? Stone tool production and utilization by bonobo-chimpanzees Pan paniscus , di I. Using direct percussion, language-competent bonobo-chimpanzees Kanzi and Pan-Banisha produced a significantly wider variety of flint tool types than hitherto reported, and used them task-specifically to break wooden logs or to dig underground for food retrieval.
For log breaking, small flakes were rotated drill-like or used as scrapers, whereas thick cortical flakes were used as axes or wedges, leaving consistent wear patterns along the glued slits, the weakest areas of the log. For digging underground, a variety of modified stone tools, as well as unmodified flint nodules, were used as shovels. Such tool production and utilization competencies reported here in Pan indicate that present-day Pan exhibits Homo-like technological competencies.
Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia Laos by 46 ka , di F. Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context.
The cranium has a derived modern human morphology in features of the frontal, occipital, maxillae, and dentition. It is also differentiated from western Eurasian archaic humans in aspects of its temporal, occipital, and dental morphology.
As such, it provides the earliest skeletal evidence for fully modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. Harmon, August 30, Tens of thousands of years ago modern humans crossed paths with the group of hominins known as the Neandertals. Researchers now think they also met another, less-known group called the Denisovans.
The only trace that we have found, however, is a single finger bone and two teeth, but those fragments have been enough to cradle wisps of Denisovan DNA across thousands of years inside a Siberian cave. Now a team of scientists has been able to reconstruct their entire genome from these meager fragments. The analysis adds new twists to prevailing notions about archaic human history. Effect of ancient population structure on the degree of polymorphism shared between modern human populations and ancient hominins , di A.
Recent comparisons between anatomically modern humans and ancient genomes of other hominins have raised the tantalizing, and hotly debated, possibility of hybridization. Although several tests of hybridization have been devised, they all rely on the degree to which different modern populations share genetic polymorphisms with the ancient genomes of other hominins. However, spatial population structure is expected to generate genetic patterns similar to those that might be attributed to hybridization.
To investigate this problem, we take Neanderthals as a case study, and build a spatially explicit model of the shared history of anatomically modern humans and this hominin. We show that the excess polymorphism shared between Eurasians and Neanderthals is compatible with scenarios in which no hybridization occurred, and is strongly linked to the strength of population structure in ancient populations.
Thus, we recommend caution in inferring admixture from geographic patterns of shared polymorphisms, and argue that future attempts to investigate ancient hybridization between humans and other hominins should explicitly account for population structure.
Right-Handedness in Regourdou 1 , di V. We describe and analyze a Neandertal postcranial skeleton and dentition, which together show unambiguous signs of right-handedness.
Asymmetries between the left and right upper arm in Regourdou 1 were identified nearly 20 years ago, then confirmed by more detailed analyses of the inner bone structure for the clavicle, humerus, radius and ulna. The total pattern of all bones in the shoulder and arm reveals that Regourdou 1 was a right-hander.
Confirmatory evidence comes from the mandibular incisors, which display a distinct pattern of right oblique scratches, typical of right-handed manipulations performed at the front of the mouth.
Regourdou's right handedness is consistent with the strong pattern of manual lateralization in Neandertals and further confirms a modern pattern of left brain dominance, presumably signally linguistic competence.
These observations along with cultural, genetic and morphological evidence indicate language competence in Neandertals and their European precursors. Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards , di J. We test this concept using records of volcanic ash layers of the Campanian Ignimbrite eruption dated to ca. The distribution of the Campanian Ignimbrite has been enhanced by the discovery of cryptotephra deposits volcanic ash layers that are not visible to the naked eye in archaeological cave sequences.
They enable us to synchronize archaeological and paleoclimatic records through the period of transition from Neanderthal to the earliest anatomically modern human populations in Europe.
Our results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthals or early modern humans in Europe.
We infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters. Lao skull earliest example of modern human fossil in Southeast Asia , Aug An ancient skull recovered from a cave in the Annamite Mountains in northern Laos is the oldest modern human fossil found in Southeast Asia, researchers report.
The discovery pushes back the clock on modern human migration through the region by as much as 20, years and indicates that ancient wanderers out of Africa left the coast and inhabited diverse habitats much earlier than previously appreciated. The team described its finding in a paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The scientists, who found the skull in , were likely the first to dig for ancient bones in Laos since the early s, when a team found skulls and skeletons of several modern humans in another cave in the Annamite Mountains.
Those fossils were about 16, years old, much younger than the newly found skull, which dates to between 46, and 63, years old. It has therefore attracted less attention, yet it provides insights into patterns of technological evolution not associated with a new hominin.
Data from Border Cave KwaZulu-Natal show a strong pattern of technological change at approximately 44—42 ka cal BP, marked by adoption of techniques and materials that were present but scarcely used in the previous MSA, and some novelties.
The agent of change was neither a revolution nor the advent of a new species of human. Although most evident in personal ornaments and symbolic markings, the change from one way of living to another was not restricted to aesthetics. Our analysis shows that: Many of these artifacts disappeared by 60, y ago, suggesting that modern behavior appeared in the past and was subsequently lost before becoming firmly established. Most archaeologists think that San hunter—gatherer cultural adaptation emerged 20, y ago.
However, reanalysis of organic artifacts from Border Cave, South Africa, shows that the Early Later Stone Age inhabitants of this cave used notched bones for notational purposes, wooden digging sticks, bone awls, and bone points similar to those used by San as arrowheads. A point is decorated with a spiral groove filled with red ochre, which closely parallels similar marks that San make to identify their arrowheads when hunting.
Human parents are, on average, a whopping 29 years older than their kids. That had been considered unusually long for a primate, but a new study reveals that chimpanzees and gorillas have their own large generation gaps, about 25 years and 19 years, respectively.
The findings also indicate that our ancestors split from those of chimpanzees at least 7 million to 8 million years ago, more than 1 million years earlier than previously thought. Research raises doubts about whether modern humans and Neanderthals interbred , Aug New research raises questions about the theory that modern humans and Neanderthals at some point interbred, known as hybridisation.
The findings of a study by researchers at the University of Cambridge suggests that common ancestry, not hybridisation, better explains the average per cent DNA that those of European and Asian descent Eurasians share with Neanderthals.
In the last two years, a number of studies have suggested that modern humans and Neanderthals had at some point interbred. Genetic evidence shows that on average Eurasians and Neanderthals share between per cent of their DNA. In contrast, Africans have almost none of the Neanderthal genome. The previous studies concluded that these differences could be explained by hybridisation which occurred as modern humans exited Africa and bred with the Neanderthals who already inhabited Europe.
The findings of a study by researchers at the University of Cambridge suggest that common ancestry, not hybridisation, better explains the average per cent DNA that those of European and Asian descent Eurasians share with Neanderthals. La variegata compagnia di Homo erectus , 09 agosto L'analisi di una serie di fossili venuti alla luce fra il e il nell'area di Koobi Fora, sulle sponde del lago Turkana, conferma che agli albori della nostra specie, accanto a H.
La scoperta dirime una diatriba iniziata quarant'anni fa. La scoperta aveva rinfocolato il dibattito sulla possibilità che altre specie di Homo vivessero a stretto contatto con H. Homo rudolfensis, dal vecchio nome coloniale del lago. La diatriba è durata decenni perché i resti di KNM-ER non includono due elementi essenziali per una corretta classificazione: I nuovi fossili saranno di grande aiuto per chiarire come il nostro ramo evolutivo sia emerso e fiorito quasi due milioni di anni fa.
KNM-ER , scoperto nel , ha la masccella superiore molto ben conservata e con quasi tutti i molari ancora al loro posto, mentre la mandibola di KNM-ER , trovata nel , è la mascella inferiore più completa di uno dei primi Homo mai scoperta. Molto intreressante, secondo i ricercatori, è anche la parte di un'altra mandibola, KNM-ER , trovata nel Quanto al nome da attribuire alla nuova specie, i ricercatori sono cauti, e osservano che prima di utilizzare H. Leakey et alii , "Nature", , — 09 August Kaplan, "Nature news", 08 August Owen, "National Geographic News", August 8, Modern human behaviour underlying cultural innovations such as language and art might have begun in southern Africa thousands of years earlier than assumed.
Evidence for symbolic behaviour, such as shell beads, appeared at least 80, years ago in southern Africa. This behaviour then seemingly disappeared and did not return until roughly 20, years ago — when humans with cultural links to modern San hunter-gatherers began to produce engraved bones and other complex artefacts.
Balter et alii , "Nature-Letters", 08 August In terms of diet, it has been suggested that early Homo was a generalist but that Paranthropus was a specialist.